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[初三英语]名师点拨unit10

发布时间:2010年08月26日 10:29 | 来源: 少儿台

  

教材分析及教学要求

  重点1.  了解古今中外的一些发明创造的英文名字

  在本单元,我们将搭乘“科技之光”,了解古今中外的一些发明创造的故事。我们中国有着悠久的历史,博大的文化,更有许多影响人类进程的里程碑式的发明创造。说起四大发明,想必大家都不陌生吧?那么,你知道它们的英文名字吗?

  好了,让我来告诉大家。

分别是火药(gun powder),指南针( compass ),造纸术( paper making ),印刷术( printing )。

 认识了它们的英文表达后,是不是学起历史来更加有兴致了?是不是更加热爱我们的祖国了?没错!每个发明创造的背后都有许许多多有趣、辛苦的故事。大家可以通过上网、看书,查到许多这方面的资料,从而丰富我们的视野。

  


  任务设计

  任务Ⅰ.  请将下列发明归类

 

computer, TV, car, hand-held calculator, camera, shoes with adjustable heels, umbrella, telephone, flying disk, heated ice cream scoop, light bulb, hamburgers, radio, microwave oven, potato chips, pizza, vacuum cleaner, tea, abacus, binoculars, bicycle, battery operated slippers, alarm clock,
 


 

  生活用品___________   ____________  _________

      ___________   ____________  _________  _________

      ___________   ____________  _________  _________

      ___________   ____________ 

  办公用品 ___________  ____________  _________

  交通用品 ___________  ____________

  科学工具 ___________ 

  食物___________  __________  _________  _________

  

  重点2.  被动语态

  什么是被动语态呢?请先看下面两个例子:

  I open the door.            我打开门。

  The door is opened by me.   门被我打开。

  哦!原来表示某物被某人怎么样的时候,我们可以用被动语态来表示。那么,被动语态是怎么构成的呢?

  某物 + be 动词 + 动词的过去分词 + by + 某人

  1.把主动态变成被动态的方法是把动词to be变成原来的主动态动词的时态,再加上主动态里动词的过去分词。

  主动态: Bell invented telephones.   贝尔发明了电话机。

  在这个主动态句子中,时态是一般过去时,所以,变成被动态时,首先要把to be 变成它的一般过去时形式,即:was / were。然后加上主动态里的动词的过去分词形式。于是就变成了:

  Telephones were invented by Bell.   电话机被贝尔发明了。

  注意进行时态的被动态。这种语态有时似乎难以使用,因为它要求用to be的现在进行时,这种形式在其他方面用得不多。

  主动态:They are repairing the bridge.

      他们正在修桥。

  被动态:The bridge is being repaired by them.

      桥正在被他们修理。

  2. 主、被动时态对照表:

 

时态/动词形式
 主动态
 被动态
 
一般现在时
 keeps
 is kept
 
现在进行时
 is keeping
 is being kept
 
一般过去时
 kept
 was kept
 
过去进行时
 was keeping
 was being kept
 
现在完成时
 has kept
 has been kept
 
过去完成时
 had kept
 had been kept
 
一般将来时
 will keep
 will be kept
 
虚拟语气
 would keep
 would be kept
 


 

  3. 本单元出现的被动语态

  Who was it / were they invented by?

  它(它们)是由谁发明的?

  It was / They were   invented by … + sb.

  它(它们)是由……发明的。

  When was it / were they invented by?

  它(它们)是什么时候被发明出来的?

  It was / They were   invented … + time

  它(它们)是……被发明出来的。

  What is it / are they  used for?

  它(它们)有什么用途呢?

  It is / They are    used for + doing sth.

  它(它们)被用来……。

  任务Ⅱ.   请用下列词汇编几组特殊疑问句。(用被动语态)

  electric slippers, adjustable heels, tea, microwave ovens, potato chips

  1.__________________________? (When)

  2.__________________________? (When)

  3.__________________________? (What)

  4.__________________________? (Who)

  5.__________________________? (Who)

  

  任务Ⅲ.  请仿照sample,编三组对话介绍中国的四大发明吧!( Four Great Inventions )

   
  Clues: 

  What:   paper making

  Who:    Cai Lun

  When:   one thousand eight hundred years ago

  What…for: record information

  A: What do you think is the most important invention?

  B: That is paper making.

  A: Who was it invented by?

  B: It was invented by Cai Lun.

  A: When was it invented?

  B: It was invented one thousand eight hundred years ago.

  A: What is it used for?

  B: It is used for recording information.

  下面的表格将帮助你完成编对话。

 

the names of inventions
 when
 who
 be used for
 
gun powder
 Tang Dynasty
 don’t know
 exploding, war, fireworks
 
compass
 War Dynasty
 Chinese people
 knowing the direction
 
printing
 one thousand ,three hundred years ago
 Bi Sheng
 printing
 
paper making
 one thousand  eight hundred years ago
 Cai Lun
 recording information
 


 

任务Ⅳ.  阅读理解

  Future computer

  Do you forget to turn off the lights and heateas when you go out of a room? In 2004 it will not matter. They will turn themselves off and on again when your return. You will choose the temperature for each room the lighting and the humidity. (湿度) A sensor will detect ( 察觉) the presence of a human ( and, with luck, ignore ( 忽略 )  the dog!) and turn the systems on, and when the humans leave it will turn them off again.

  The sensors will work through the central home computer, and they will do much more than just turn the fire and lights on and off for you. They will detect faulty electrical equipment, wires or switches, separate ( 隔离) them so that they can’t harm anyone, and then warn you that they need repair. They will detect fire and if you are out of the house, the computer will call the fireman. It will also call the police if the sensors detect a robber. This will not be too difficult because the locks on the outside doors will be electronic. You will open them using our personal card------ the one you use for shopping-----may be using a number known only to you.

  It will be important to lose the key, and a housebreaker will have to tamper ( 乱动) with the lock or with a window. It is not very difficult to make such tampering send a signal ( 信号 ) to the computer.

  The computer will be more than a fireman-policeman-servant. It will be an entertainer, and most of your entertainment will come right into your home. It does now, of course, but by 2040 entertainment will mean much more. You will be able to take part actively, rather than just watching.

  Questions:

  1.Can the future computer help you turn on and off the lights?

  _____________________________________.

  2.Can the future computer warn you that the electrical equipment need repair?

  _____________________________________.

  3.If you are out of the house, who will call the fireman?

  _____________________________________.

  4.In the future, what will you use to open the door?

  _____________________________________.

  5.Are you able to take part in the entertainment on computer at home in the future?

  _____________________________________.

  


  参考答案

  任务设计

  任务Ⅰ.

  生活用品   telephone, TV, shoes with adjustable heels, battery operated slippers, heated ice cream scoop, alarm clock, light bulb, radio, microwave oven, vacuum cleaner, umbrella,  flying disk, camera

  办公用品  computer, handed-held calculator, abacus,

  交通工具  car, bicycle,

  科学工具  binoculars

  食物 potato chips, pizza, hamburgers, tea

  任务Ⅱ.

  1. When were electric slippers invented?

  2. When were shoes with adjustable heels invented?

  3. What is tea used for?

  4. Who was microwave ovens invented by?

  5. Who were potato chips invented by?

  任务Ⅲ.

  1.A: What do you think is the most important invention?

  B: That is gun powder.

  A: Who was it invented by?

  B: I don’t know.

  A: When was it invented?

  B: It was invented in Tang Dynasty.

  A: What is it used for?

  B: It is used for the war,

  2.A: What do you think is the most important invention?

  B: That is compass.

  A: When was it invented?

  B: It was invented in War Dynasty.

  A: Who was it invented by?

  B: It was invented by Chinese people.

  A: What is it used for?

  B: It is used for knowing the direction.

  3.A: What do you think is the most important invention?

  B: That is printing.

  A: When was it invented?

  B: It was invented one thousand three hundred years ago.

  A: Who was it invented by?

  B: It was invented by Bi Sheng.

  A: What is it used for?

  B: It is used for printing.

  

  任务Ⅳ.

  1.Yes, it can.

  2.Yes, it can.

  3.The computer.

  4.Your personal card.

  5.Yes, I can.

责编:陈喆

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