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[初三英语]形容词和副词

发布时间:2010年08月24日 11:04 | 来源: 少儿台

Unit 15 (II) 形容词和副词

形容词:表示人或事物的特征。形容词与其修饰语(如very等)以及附加成分(如介词短语、than引导的比较结构)等一起构成形容词短语,在句中可用做定语、表语、宾语补足语等。形容词有原级、比较级和最高级三种形式。

副词:表示行为或性质的特征。副词与其修饰语(如very等)以及附加成分(如than引导的比较结构等)一起构成副词短语,在句中用做各种状语、修饰语等,副词有原级、比较级和最高级三种形式。

 

形容词和副词在句子成分中对比

    一、形容词在句中可作如下成分:

1.      形容词做定语:说明名词的性质和特征,通常置于名词前。如:

In late winter there is always something exciting to happen.

Ø        下列情况下,形容词通常置于所修饰的名称后面:a.修饰复合不定代词,b. afraid, alive, alone, asleep, awake. 等带前缀a- 的形容词。如:

“Is there anything wrong here?” he asked, being a man always afraid for his safely.

Ø        下列形容词通常不用前置定语(只用做表语和宾语补足语):带前缀a-的形容词;几个表示健康状况的形容词(ill,well, unwell等),如:

 The girl who was very ill was found fast asleep at night.

2.      形容词作表语:形容词位于联系动词后,说明主语的性质和特征。

She is getting old.

3.      宾语补足语:用于复合宾语及物动词的宾语后,说明宾语的性质

和特征。

 We found it impossible to refuse his offer.

4.      用作名词:下列三种形容词可加上定冠词用作名词:a. 指一类人:the old,the young … b. 指某一民族的人:the English,the French,the Chinese… c. 指抽象概念: the bad,the best,the true,the worst…如:

The British always think the young should respect the old.

二、副词可在句中作如下成分:

1.      状语:

动词状语——说明行为发生的时间、地点、方式、程度等,在句中的位置比较灵活,常置于句末,也可置于动词前(时间频度副词和程度副词等常如此)或句首。如:

Yesterday his youngest son went abroad.

They thought very highly of his work and rather liked him.

          全句状语——说明说话者对所说内容或说话方式的评论,或起连接上下文的作用,通常皆置于句首,后往往有逗号与全句隔开。如:

         Surely, nobody will believe what he said.

         Frankly, I don’t think it’s of much use.

2.      修饰语:

修饰形容词——如:almost, fairly, perfectly, pretty, quite, rather, really, so, too, very, completely, highly, nearly等,置于形容词之前(仅enough一词除外)如:

The box is a little too long but just wide enough to put the dictionary in.

修饰副词——通常表示程度,如:almost, fairly, perfectly, pretty, quite, rather, really, so, too, very等,置于副词前(仅enough一词除外)如:

He got up quite early, so arrived there early enough to see him before he left.

修饰介词短语——仅表示程度,如:almost, completely, nearly, just, quite, right, well等置于介词前。如:

She looks just like her mother.

修饰名词短语——仅个别表示程度的副词(如quite, rather)可做名词的前置修饰语,但不少表示时间、地点的副词可做名词的后置修饰语。如:

We has rather a hard time. The hill ahead was too high.

3.      其他

做表语——有的副词(如down, up, in, out, on, off, over等)可用于联系动词后。如;

He has been down ever since he heard the bad news.

做介词宾语——有的表示时间、地点的副词可用在某些介词后做介词宾语。如:

I had not thought seriously of that till then.

 

形容词和副词比较级的构成:P55

1.      绝大多数单音节形容词是规则变化:

如: tall----taller---tallest    short---shorter---shortest

fine---finer---finest     nice---nicer---nicest

free---freer---freest    

big---bigger---biggest   fat---fatter---fattest

shy---shier---shiest     early---earlier---earliest

         注意:有的单音节形容词不用此方式候场比较等级形式,如:fond,glad,pleased,real,right,tired,wrong等。

2.      许多多音节形容词(多以非重读元音结尾)

 如:tidy---tidier---tidiest    

narrow---narrower---narrowest

able---abler---ablest

bitter---bitterer---bitterest

polite---politer---politest

quiet---quieter---quietest

      注意:上面除以-y结尾的双音节词也可加more,most构成比较等级形式,且使用更广。用做形容词的ing 分词及ed分词,不可用此方式构成比较等级形式。

3.      加more,most

多音节形容词

handsome---more handsome---most handsome

双音节形容词

narrow---more narrow---most narrow

4.      不规则形式

原级                比较级               最高级

good                 better                best

bad, ill                worse               worst

far                farther(further)         farther(further)

old                 older(elder)            older(elder)

much, many            more                most

little                  less                  least

副词的比较级:(参照形容词的比较等级)

总的规律是:通常加more/most,不多的单音节副词等加词尾-er,-est构成。

单音节           fast     faster     fastest

个别双音节词    often    oftener    oftenest(更常加more,most)

不规则变化     well     better     best

               badly   worse     worst

             

形容词和副词比较等级的用法:(大致相同)

1.      比较级 + than :形容词或副词前可有much, far, rather, hardly, still, even, a lot, a little, a bit, a good deal, no, any等程度修饰语,如:

He is (even) older than she (is) (or than her).

He runs much faster than she.

2.      less + 比较级 + than:形容词或副词前可有 much, far, a lot 等修饰词。

He is less old than she.

He runs less faster than she.

3.      as +原级+ as:形容词或副词前可有twice, three times, half, almost, nearly, just, exactly, quite等修饰词。

He is as tall as she.

He runs as fast as she.

4.      not so/as +原级+as:形容词或副词前可有twice, almost, nearly, just, exactly, quite等修饰语。

He is not so old as she.

He doesn’t run so fast as she.

5.      比较级+and+比较级:“越来越…”

He is getting older and older.

He runs faster and faster.

6.      The +比较级…+the+比较级:“越…就越…”

The older he is, the weaker he gets.

The faster he runs, the harder he breathes.

7.      最高级的用法:形容词最高级前必须带定冠词the,而副词常省略不用。The前可有much, far, by far, nearly, almost等或(当最高级为加词尾-est构成时)the后可有very,second,third等修饰词。

He is the oldest of the three.

He runs fastest of all.

8. “most+形容词” 前无定冠词(或带不定冠词a),不是最高级,most 当“非常”讲。

I was most happy to go with you. It was a most joyful day.

 

练习:P57—58,P60--62

 

责编:陈喆

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